Part 1
A helping hand (pages 6-7)
Exercises 4 and 5
M: I found that article about hands and thumbs really
F: Yes, very thought-provoking. I studied anthropology at university and remember reading that the thumb was crucial in making humans superior to all other animals. What we can do with our hands enabled our brain to develop.
M: Did you know about the difference between men's and
women's hands? F: Not that thing about the finger lengths. I'd love to find out more about that actually. Mind you, I'm not convinced about the punching theory. Don't kangaroos punch? Anyway, surely what makes humans good at fighting is the fact we can make and use weapons not that we can use our fists.
42 Exercise 7
M: This article's really fascinating. It says that chimpanzees, which are more similar than any other animal to humans, can throw a ball at about thirty kilometres an hour. But a baseball player can throw one at a hundred and sixty kilometres. F: Yes, basically, no other creature throws like us. It makes sense when you think how differently our bodies are designed.
M: Right.
F: But I hadn't realised the speeds we're capable of. M: Well, our ability to throw evolved thousands of years ago - our ancestors hunted animals by throwing stones and other
things at them.
F: Yes, you needed a good throw to hit a bird or a deer. I remember that from history lessons at school.
3 Exercise 9
F: You know that article about throwing? Well, I saw a TV programme about the same thing.
M: Oh. Was it good?
F: Well, I wish it'd had more about the advantages that throwing well brought humans. Apparently, more efficient hunting changed our ancestors' diet, and that meant they grew larger brains and bodies. I could've done with a lot more on that but most of the programme concentrated on showing how the human shoulder and arm work and how they evolved. There were various researchers and professors discussing it. Having read the article helped actually because I could cope with some of the specialist terms they came out with - like elastic energy and hominids.
Issues at school (pages 8-9)
Exercise 5
M: My dad thinks schools should introduce a dress code for
F: Like all male teachers wearing suits and ties? Well, people who look smart and formal are usually well-organised and
hardworking, which is important in a teacher. M: I've had great teachers who wear jeans and T-shirts. Their appearance probably makes a difference to a school's image,
though. F: If the teachers look smart, people assume it's good? I suppose
that's right.

M: The ideal teacher for me is someone who knows their subject and makes their lessons interesting. F: But dressing smartly shows us what it takes to be successful.
M: I find that hard to believe, unless maybe you want to work in
a bank.
Exercise 9
F: Apparently, a school in London has banned the use of slang. They say it's to make sure their students learn how to express themselves in Standard English.
M: I heard about that. I imagine some students might resent it -
their parents would be in favour, though.
F: They'd see it as a way for their children to get better at communicating in situations where slang's unsuitable. I quite like e idea myself. I hear far too much slang being used in class.
M: How could we enforce a rule like that? Anyway, our students know the difference between slang and Standard English. They just need to be more aware of when slang is and isn't appropriate.
Video games (pages 10-11)
Exercises 2b and 3b
The idea of Wild Star is quite familiar. As a player, you pilot a spaceship through different star systems, carrying supplies to various planets and space stations, and guarding other transporters from pirate attacks. If you succeed in a mission, you gain points and can upgrade your spaceship. The comparisons with old favourites like Destination V9 and Plume are obvious, and the basics of what to do are straightforward. What will annoy gamers is that earning enough points to improve the spaceship takes an incredibly long time - so long that you just feel like giving up. This is something the makers of this game definitely need to look at.
Exercise 5b
Interviewer: Lots of people, especially children and teenagers, spend more and more of their time playing video. games. Should we be concerned about this?
Psychologist: Well, being physically active is obviously healthier than sitting in front of a screen, and we know that many people today - young and old - don't get enough exercise. But I'm not sure whether young people spend more time gaming than people spent watching TV thirty or so years ago. Anyway, is playing video games necessarily a bad thing? After all - and this is something people often ignore or forget gaming can involve teamwork, co-operation, problem-solving and logical thinking. Developing these skills is good for you, you don't get them from watching TV.
8 Exercise 7
F: I played that game - you know, The Visible - the one set in the nineteenth century.
M: Oh. How did you get on?
F: Fine. What you actually have to do the mysteries you some - is pretty much the sort of thing you'd expect in the genre. Having said that, the designers have made the most of some cutting-edge programming. The settings and characters are meant to be totally authentic, but you feel as though you're there. You can't actually smell the city streets, but it's almost as if you're in them. And the detective and the people he meets aren't quite human, but you're never in doubt that you understand their thoughts and motivations.


A little bit of science (pages 12-13)

19 Exercise 5b
Im sure you remember last year's competition when you had to write an interesting description of an experiment you'd carried out as part of your course. Some great work was produced and you learnt tots from doing it. That's why it'd be good if you'd consider going in for this year's Science Magazine competition. The challenge is to imagine you could team up with a scientist From any time in history in order to make a new discovery. You'd need to think about who you'd choose: Isaac Newton? Marie Curie? Alexander Graham Bell? What would you want to discover? What would your research be like? You'd need to write about 500 words.
10 Exercise 7
d like to say a few words about the lecture on black holes in space that I mentioned the other day. We now know it's at 2.00 pm next Friday, at the Science Museum. The speaker is the astronomer Dr Andrea Comoli. She's supposed to be a brilliant speaker, and I know you're all fascinated by the subject of black holes, so it's definitely something to look forward to. I can also tell you that we should each come up with a question we'd like to ask her, in advance, on anything to do with space. I'll check those with you in class the day before the lecture.
Getting together (pages 14-15)
11 Exercise 3b
Sam, it's Michael. It just occurred to me that you've got that big family gathering today. Didn't you mention some relatives who you've got nothing in common with and dread seeing? Trust me, know what it's like having to make small talk with old relatives you hardly know. I was in a situation like that not long ago with a couple of boring old second cousins or something - it was really awkward. Listen, I was wondering if you could escape for a bit. Can you make an excuse like you've got to go through some college work and you need to come to my place to do it? Let me know what you think.
112 Exercise 6
Hi Jenny, it's Karen. I'm supposed to be letting everyone know about the new arrangements for the get-together next week. You know about it, of course, as you were there on Thursday when the five of us discussed what we were going to do. Well, I've got hold of everyone except for Alison. For some reason I don't have her contact details, but I've heard you do. So if you could forward them to me - by text would be ideal - that'd be really helpful. Let's hope everyone can make it on the twenty seventh. I'm dying to find out what people have been up to recently. OK, bye for now.
113 Exercise 7
Hi Jim. Sally here. I wondered if you'd had another think about going to Maria's wedding. I realise you've got your hands full. these days with your new job, and going to the wedding would mean being away for two or three days. But we've always been such good friends with Maria - shouldn't we make an extra effort? We haven't seen her for a couple of years anyway, not since she moved away. I know we talk online sometimes, but t does feel as though we're drifting apart a bit. Anyway, I'm definitely going, but it'll seem strange to go without you. I'll try calling again later. Bye.

That's entertainment (page 16-17)

14 Exercise 5
M: Did you watch The Baxter Brothers last night?
F: Yes, I did. Gripping, isn't it? It's a bit too violent for me
sometimes, though. There were moments I just couldn't bear to
M: I know what you mean, but those people - the gangsters, the police, some of the other weird characters, they did actually exist. The film-makers apparently did lots of research to get the
1950s period details right. F: I'm sure they did. I liked the way lots of scenes looked as though they were taken from news reports or even people's own
home-made films.
M: I think that must've come from the director's background. He
was a TV journalist for a long time.
15 Exercise 6
M: What are you reading, Annie?
F: It's called Brayford. It's about a woman and her friends who campaign to stop a new road being built through a forest near
where they live. M: So, they resist it?
F: Yeah. They steal road-building equipment, chain themselves to trees, they break the law and get arrested. The emphasis, though, is on showing how ridiculous the road-building plan is,
so there's plenty of humour. M: I saw you laughing to yourself.
F: Well, it's hilarious. It's based on an account by a woman who took part in a real event like it years ago. The details and characters have been made up, and exaggerated, but the
inspiration was something authentic.
16 Exercise 8
F: Have you been watching Hangar Hill recently? M: Not for ages. What weird and wonderful things have I
F: Well, Scott has been in court - he's been charged with assault, and it looks like he's guilty. Esther and Mikey have split up and they're talking to lawyers. Camille wants to make friends with Jackie - they haven't exchanged a word for six years. Bruce has started to build what he calls his spaceship in his back garden - various rumours are going round about that.
M: More happens in one afternoon than in half the lifetime of a normal person. It's so hard to believe sometimes. F: True, but the characters are so fascinating.


Part 2
Hot work! (pages 18-19)
17 Exercise 4
Hello. My name's Cormac Murphy and I'm a fire prevention and investigation engineer. To give you an idea of what that means - over a couple of days recently I advised on fire prevention in a factory, trained some railway station staff in fire procedures, and, with my colleagues, worked out how a
blaze at a sports centre started.
In that particular case, my colleagues and I examined the scene of the fire and then carried out lab tests on items from the fire. A faulty heater was initially thought to be the cause, but we checked other things and found that a fridge was actually to blame. A defective running machine also had to be ruled out of our investigations.

18 Exercise 6
So, how did I get into this field? When I was at college, it would've been nice to have visiting speakers talking about their jobs - a fireman talking about putting out fires, say. I didn't, unfortunately, though I had an excellent teacher who got me interested in science, which has certainly helped in my career. But it was when I saw a TV programme about various investigative jobs that I first became aware of the work I do now, and realised it might suit me.
When I first went into the profession twenty-five years ago, it was going through some changes and becoming more of a science. Not that investigators hadn't been good previously, but it'd been a sort of art. And new developments were
making it more systematic and evidence-based. I did an engineering degree, with part of it focusing on fire-related things. Nowadays, actually, there are specialist degree and they're very well-designed. I had lots of fun at university, but in particular we did a number of projects which I now realise were very realistic, and taught me things I still remember.
After university, I spent ten years working in different countries. I started off in Colombia, in the oil industry. I set up a fire prevention system for a pipeline there, which was probably the most exciting thing I was involved in - but I also helped establish operating procedures for a storage facility,
which taught me a lot.
For the last fifteen years, I've been in one place, working for the state fire service. Lots of my work takes place in a lab where we gather information about how fires work with different materials and conditions - how much smoke they
produce, for instance, or what level of heat they generate. We have a device called a fire product collector which gives us data on the energy particular materials give off - it indicates how fast a fire might spread.
One thing I like about my job, however, is that it's not limited to working in a lab. I'm involved in training other investigators at special fire schools, and I also go to court to give evidence
on cases we've investigated. I used to try to avoid this as I
didn't feel confident, but I actually find it quite satisfying now, rather to my surprise. I also visit workplaces to advise on fire prevention systems.
As my career has progressed, my responsibilities have changed the skills I need too. Nowadays, good time management is particularly crucial, and I've had to work very hard at it as it's my main weakness. It's also important to keep up with advances in fire analysis techniques, and I've had to get better at communicating with different people I deal with. Well, I hope you now have a better idea about what a career as a fire expert might involve. It'd bring you decent financial rewards, though if your aim's to be rich, you'd do better to look for something else. If I was at the start of my working life, as you are, I'd say that what would appeal to me more than anything is the variety, but there's also great satisfaction to be gained from taking on the challenge of helping people to live
more safely. Now, if you have any questions, ...

Elvis the king of rock'n'roll (pages 20-21)

I first got interested in Elvis Presley on a family holiday in the USA. The plan was to travel along the Mississippi River - my dad's a journalist and he wanted to write something for a magazine about the river. When our neighbour heard about the trip, she suggested we go and see Elvis's house in

Memphis, a city on the Mississippi, so we did.
After Elvis died, Graceland - that's what his house is called - was turned into a tourist attraction, and it now brings over one hundred million dollars per year into the local economy.
Something like six hundred thousand people go there
annually considering the population of Memphis is only six
hundred and fifty thousand, that's impressive.
120 Exercises 4 and 5
It's a big old house which Elvis added to. He bought it when he became rich so he and his parents could live in comfort. You can see their living room full of furniture that was fashionable in the 1960s and 70s - I thought it looked quite weird actually. There's another big room full of photographs of Elvis and his family and friends. Many of them appear in books and online, so you might imagine it could be boring - 1 was fascinated though. All the awards Elvis won, like gold discs, are in another room, if you're keen on that kind of thing. Just over the road from Graceland, there are other Elvis related items, like two planes he travelled around in. I thought they were amazing. You could also see all the cars he owned, and various motorbikes. Next to that is a collection of clothes he performed in.
I learnt lots about Elvis's life from my visit to Graceland. He was born in 1935 into a very poor family. When he was a teenager, they moved to Memphis, which had a very lively music scene, and Elvis wanted to be a musician from an early age - he obviously had a natural talent as a singer. But when he finished school, he started working as a truck driver to earn some money.
The first few records he made in the mid-1950s were a new kind of music, rock and roll, which developed out of older styles like blues and country music. Some older people found the music shocking at first, but it soon became very popular, especially among teenagers. Radio stations played Elvis's records a lot, but a big factor in his success was that this was when ordinary Americans were able to watch television for the first time and they watched Elvis performing this new
music and found it thrilling. Another thing I read is that for teenagers in the United States at that time, Elvis was a symbol of freedom. The way he moved, spoke and performed was very different from their parents' generation, and his energy and talent won him
millions of fans.
One thing worth saying is that Elvis was very hardworking. Over the years, he did thousands of shows and made hundreds of records - over a billion have been sold worldwide. One thing I hadn't realised was that he acted in films - thirty-three of them in total. They're not all great apparently, but it's amazing he did them at all. You can watch plenty of Elvis's performances online. They vary a lot, and I find some of his songs are too sentimental, but there are times when he's brilliant - his singing, his dancing his interaction with the audience. If he was a young guy performing today, I'm sure he'd be really popular. Elvis was only forty-two when he died in 1977, and the last few years of his life weren't always great. I think it's well known that his health wasn't good but he also had serious difficulties with money, which, considering how many recomm he sold, I found really puzzling when I read it. He also had trouble in some of his relationships, with some of his relative for example. But, in a way, this all makes his story even more fascinating.

Rainforests at the bottom of the sea
(pages 22-23)

121 Exercise 1b
Coral reefs are sometimes called the rainforests of the sea. This is because the variety of life that they support is comparable to that of the tropical rainforests of the Amazon, south-east Asia and Africa. It is estimated that no fewer than two million different species live in and around reefs, which is a very significant number, especially bearing in mind that reefs cover a tiny amount of the sea bed around the globe, some people say no more than 0.1 per cent. Coral reefs are actually made up of living organisms. Extremely small creatures called polyps attach themselves to rocks and when they die they leave their skeletons. Over thousands of years, these all build up to form hard coral. So coral reefs are a different kind of organism living in the water, and also on small fish. If there are too many algae, which can happen in certain conditions - when water temperatures rise, for example - this is bad for the coral. The algae prevent sunlight getting through, which the coral needs in order to survive. Coral reefs tend to be located in tropical zones, and in water which is relatively shallow, normally no deeper than fifty metres. The largest reef globally is the Great Barrier Reef off the northern coast of Australia. It's about two thousand six hundred kilometres long. But there are also large reef systems in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, in parts of the southern Pacific Ocean and around the Philippines and Indonesia.
22 Exercise 2b
Hello. I'd like to tell you about my interest in coral reefs. It started when I went diving with a friend off northern Australia. I've been into diving for about ten years now. I was shown the basics by a cousin of mine one holiday, but then I joined a diving club and I've since done various courses with a qualified instructor.
That first coral reef dive was wonderful. Reefs look great on film, with all those amazing marine plants and fish, but being there is even better. There were several turtles, which looked beautiful swimming around, and I remember that seeing them somehow gave me a sense of calmness and confidence. There were also jellyfish and sharks, as I'd been warned there might be, though they avoided us, thankfully.
123 Exercise 4
It was five years before I had another chance to dive at that reef. Before I did, I'd heard there'd been a sharp decline in fish numbers, and that there were reports about specific plant types disappearing. The real eye-opener for me, though, was that the incredibly vivid colours I'd seen previously had been largely replaced by a dull brown. Something was clearly wrong.
knew about global warming and how rising sea
temperatures can be dangerous for sea life, and materials like plastic were obviously bad for the ecosystem too. But when looked into the subject, I discovered that even sun cream contains elements harmful to ocean life. I used to cover myself with it!
Unfortunately, what I saw at that reef has been happening at other reefs around the world, according to the experts. They reckon twenty per cent of all reefs will never recover, and sixty per cent of them are at risk. This is really serious. Although reefs cover a very small amount of the ocean floor, they house about twenty-five per cent of all marine life. And they're nurseries for over twenty per cent of the world's seawater fish, including many that people eat.

Most ordinary people aren't very well informed about reefs - I wasn't until recently. But, did you know that scientific investigations of coral have led to new treatments for major diseases? And did you realise that in many parts of the world they act as sea barriers and help to prevent flooding of coastal areas? I feel strongly about reefs and I've found something I think is useful to be involved in. It involves taking masses of underwater photographs of reefs and uploading them to a website where they're used by scientists for reef monitoring. Actually, anyone can see the photos - is the site name if you're interested. It's linked to a site called, which is a great source of information about
The photos I take help to build up a picture of current
reef conditions and how the things humans do- creating pollution, overfishing and so on- affect coral reefs. Scientists sometimes refer to our 'reef fingerprint, which I think is a living structures, and the corals themselves feed on algae, good way of putting it.
There are other ways we can help, of course. Corals feed on tiny organisms called algae, but these algae grow faster than normal in polluted water, and when you get too many of them, they cover a reef and cut off the sunlight it needs to survive. So, it's important to try to keep algae off corals and I'm very hopeful about a device currently being developed to hoover up algae. But less hi-tech things can be done. One guy in Hawaii, for example, removes algae from reefs there with an ordinary toothbrush. It must be hard work, but all credit to him.
And then I've got a friend who campaigns to stop the construction of an artificial beach - it'd change that part of the coast, which would have a knock-on effect on a nearby reef. Or it can be something much simpler - recently I spent a couple of hours with a group of surfers doing a beach clean up. We collected several bags full of rubbish from the sand - a very worthwhile thing to do.
Racing through life (pages 24-25)
Exercise 2b
Ruby Taylor is one of motor racing's most interesting young drivers. For the last two seasons she has been a regular and successful driver on the GP3 circuit, and she is often. mentioned as a potential Formula One driver. She started racing karts when she was eleven, and was a natural. Although she hadn't been particularly aware of motor racing before that, she loved all sports at school, she was very competitive and she liked cars, so it was hardly surprising that she took to motor racing.
Her parents, Jim and Tracy Taylor, have always been very supportive of Ruby, even though neither of them are motor racing fans. Her mother is a talented pianist and her father runs marathons. Ruby says of her father that he's very self disciplined, unlike her, but that she takes after him in other ways - her determination comes from him, she believes.
125 Exercise 6
I'm Ruby Taylor and I'm going to answer questions that listeners have sent in about my life in motor racing. First, Louise asks if I raced against boys as a junior. Yes, I raced against boys when I did karting, and I race against men in cars now. Most drivers are male, but there have been a few women over the years. When I started karting, one of the top racers was a woman called Audrey Philips - the 'mini express', as she was known. She was my idol, and it was because of her that I was labelled the 'little bullet' when I started winning. A question from Michael next: how easy was the switch from karting to car racing? Actually, lots of basic driving skills are

transferrable, though some things are different. Karts don't have mirrors, for example. It might seem insignificant, but learning how to use them properly was more challenging than anything else for me. Cars have gears, which karts don't, and the brakes are a bit different, but I soon got the hang of them.
Fiona's question is: do racing drivers have different driving styles? Well, one of my biggest rivals is known to be aggressive as a driver. I've been called a smooth driver, though I'd say 'precise' would be more accurate. So, yes, we
vary. Jeff asks how drivers prepare for races. Personally, in the lead-up to a race, I try to work out my tactics. If I don't know the track well, then I'll study maps of it. Some drivers watch videos of previous races there, but I find going round the track on foot more helpful. We also have short practice and qualifying sessions the day before the race. And on a connected point, Fatima has emailed to ask what goes through my mind when I'm on the starting grid. Well, concentration is the key and drivers have various rituals. Some check the car controls or focus on the steering wheel. Visualising the first lap is another technique and the one I've adopted.
Now, Aaron asks about my recent races. A couple of weeks ago, I won a race and beat some very good opponents, despite difficult weather conditions. I came eighth in my most recent event. I was just behind the race leaders for ages but then got held up by some yellow flags - a safety issue on the track had cropped up and I never recovered after that. OK. Julie asks about the main challenges I face. Well, being a woman in a traditionally male-dominated sport is one, but I do feel I'm treated with respect. Physical fitness is crucial - you need lots of gym time to take care of that. Ensuring I get enough sponsorship to carry on is what I struggle with more than anything, though.
Pedro asks if I belong to a team. Well, in professional motor racing you can't operate on your own. You need a manager to help you with competition entries, travel, accommodation and so on. Then, I have an engineer who looks after my car - in fact, I see him more than anyone else in my life, including my boyfriend and my parents. There's also a health advisor. who does regular health checks.
Amanda asks what my greatest achievement is. I've managed to climb the ladder from junior karting to GP3, which is pretty high up, and I've won a few awards. A few months ago, I was declared most improved driver, which I feel better about than anything I've previously won. A few years ago, I was most promising driver of the year, which had probably been the best.
Now one last question: Eddie asks what I'd be doing if I wasn't a racing driver. Well, drivers have to leave racing for various reasons. It's quite common to become a test driver, working for car manufacturers. And a former team-mate of mine has just become a car designer. I've always been interested in the media, though, and being a journalist is something I'd definitely favour.

Making models (pages 26-27)
126 Exercise 3a
Hi. My name's Maya Evans. I make models of animals for museums. Recently, for example, I've built models of birds - some exotic ones but also more familiar ones - for a special exhibition. And I'm currently producing life-sized replicas of goats - mainly a type that lives wild in the mountains, but also some domesticated ones too.
1 27 Exercise 4
Now, I'll mostly be answering questions that were sent to me in advance. David asked about the materials I use. The process involves building a frame based on measurements of the animal's skeleton - my preference is to use steel for this. Then I apply a layer of foam, and, on top of that, clay, which is lovely for sculpting. Then on goes a coat of polyester to protect the surface.
Exercise 5
The next question's from Lisa: How do you know what a model should look like? Well, I do lots of research. Apart from size and shape, I'll find out about the skin and typical poses. I use the internet, books and photos, but I often need more. To get a better idea of the movements wolves make, for example, I spent some time in a zoo.
Now, Roberto asked if I collaborate with other people. Oh yes. For example, a scientist will check the accuracy of what I'm doing that's happened regularly on my current project. I may also liaise with a graphic designer, who'll be responsible for the display surrounding the models I'm making. And I might ask a photographer for specific pictures of an animal. 1 work with other people too.
Mary asks why museums use models rather than preserved real animals. Well, replicas are durable, but if you put a preserved parrot in a display, even if it's in a glass case, the colour will fade, the feathers will start to break up, and there are certain insects which feed on any organic material and eventually destroy the specimen. Museum visitors want something that looks like a living creature, even if it's not real The next question's from Lee, who asks how I became a model maker. Well, I was really keen on painting when I was young, and after school I did an art course at college. Then I moved onto a diploma in jewellery making, but halfway through, I realised that sculpture was more my thing, so I changed to that. It was a turning point because it led me into making special effects for films.
Now Sandra's question: have I ever made models for films? actually did an eight-year stint in film studios. I made all sorts of things from dragons, the subject of the first movie I worker on, to dinosaurs - I worked on some great films involving them, from mummies to the pyramids of ancient Egypt. I also worked on several TV series. The best-known, which ha been broadcast all over the world, was Sea Monsters, which looked at various creatures that once lived in the oceans but are now extinct. My favourite show was probably Cave Life, which explored the artwork and objects left behind by people who lived about thirty thousand years ago. Another great series was In Ice Forever. With the development of computer-generated imagery, there's less demand for moder making in film and TV, which is one reason I moved into museum work.
Adam asks if I've ever made models of dinosaurs. Yes, I have. One issue is that ideas about dinosaurs are constantly changing. Experts carry out studies and fresh discoveries take place. These increase our knowledge, but they also cause difficulties for museums because displays quickly go out-of-date. Occasionally, I've been halfway through making a dinosaur model when I've been asked to adjust dimensions or colour because of new information. Now, Teresa asks what I most like about my work. There's lot of problem-solving involved, which I find more rewarding than anything else about it. But I also like experimenting wit
materials, and using my imagination. Being respected by colleagues is important too. Right. If you have any further questions,...


Let me sleep! (pages 28-29)
Exercise 2
I recently heard about a sixteen-year-old student in the USA, called Zoe Brown, who campaigned against a decision to move her school start time from 7.45 am to 7.15 am. On a typical school night, Zoe was lucky to get six hours' sleep - she found it difficult to fall asleep before midnight - and, as a result, she felt tired all day at school. So she was shocked at the thought that she might get even less sleep. Zoe did some reading and discovered that teenagers are biologically programmed to fall asleep late and wake up late. So, according to psychologists, starting school earlier than 9.00 am didn't make much sense. Zoe also discovered that many schools around the US had already moved their start times to later in the day. After reading this, she had the confidence to organise a protest.
She posted messages on social media encouraging other pupils to join her. She put up over a hundred posters around the school, and soon had over three hundred signatures on a petition to have a later start time - many more than she'd imagined she'd get. She even discovered that several teachers shared her concerns.
Zoe was then allowed to present her views at a meeting of the school board. She explained that a 9.00 am school start made much more sense than one at 7.15, and she referred to research to back this up. People raised various objections, the main one being the difficulty of rearranging the school bus timetable. The school lunch break would also have to be rescheduled, and some board members claimed that time after school for sports practice would be reduced. Eventually, however, the school board went along with her proposal. And apparently, the later start time has been very successful. Zoe's story inspired me to read a book about sleep by a psychologist. He says that for teenagers to function in a normal way, it's necessary for them to have nine hours' sleep a night. As children become adolescents, their body clocks
change and falling asleep and waking up late is natural for them. This expert says obliging teenagers to begin school early in the morning is actually cruel, which I found quite striking.
Most teenagers nowadays don't get nine hours' sleep a night. Studies in the UK, for example, suggest that many are only getting about five hours, and that this has a serious impact on behaviour and also on learning. Sleep is important whatever your age, but it's particularly significant when young people are developing.
According to some research, the place where people live and their social class both influence the amount teenagers sleep. But, generally, teenagers are going to bed later than they used to and not getting as much sleep as they need. Of course, it's not just biology and school start times that affect teenagers' sleep. Young people now are more exposed to things that keep them awake at night. Heavy use of electronic devices like TVs, computers and smartphones keeps your brain over-active and unable to relax. A'perfect storm' is a phrase I've come across which seems a good way to express all the things that result in teenagers not sleeping enough.
There are some positive developments. A growing number of schools are changing their start times to fit in with teenagers' natural sleep patterns. Many of these schools have reported fewer pupils falling asleep in class, stronger academic performances and more regular attendance. More needs to happen, but it's a step in the right direction.
There's plenty of advice available on how to sleep better. Experts say we should stop using electronic devices an hour before we want to sleep. We should make sure the
temperatures in the bedroom and the rest of the home aren't too high, and keep away from bright lights just before bedtime. And some drinks can keep us awake. You definitely shouldn't have coffee in the afternoon and evening, for example - something I'm not sensible about, unfortunately.


Part 3
Classic songs (pages 30-31)

1-30 Exercise 4a
Our music teacher told me to listen to a song called 'Some Might Say' and then write what I thought about it. I looked it up on the internet and found it's by Oasis, a British band that were popular in the 1990s. I think I've heard it before, in fact, and I quite like that kind of rock music. I find the words confusing, though - like when the singer says 'the sink is full of fishes 'cos she's got dirty dishes on the brain. What does that mean? But he sings with plenty of feeling. The website I looked at recommends other Oasis tracks - I'm definitely going to see what they're like.
431 Exercise 5a
I found a song online called 'Big Yellow Taxi' by someone called Joni Mitchell. It describes a place where people chopped down trees and built a car park, a hotel and other buildings people destroying nature. Apparently, it was written in 1970, so obviously people were as worried about the environment back then as we are now. I like the way Joni Mitchell sang about serious things, not just love and parties and the sort of things most songs seem to be about. In fact, I found it quite inspiring - it made me think I could do something like that, and I've already worked out a tune and some words for a song.
132 Exercise 6
Speaker 1
I asked my mum if she could recommend an old song to me and she suggested 'In My Life' by the Beatles. I hadn't heard it before, but I know a bit about the Beatles because my mum sometimes plays their music when we're in the car. The Beatles' sound is quite distinctive; you can tell this song's one of theirs. Generally, I'm not into old music, but I quite like this song. It's really catchy - I can hear it in my head right now. The singer describes places he's been to and people he's known and how he feels about them, which is a good subject for a
song. Speaker 2
Our music teacher asked us to write about an old song. I looked online and found something called 'Unfinished Sympathy', which came out over twenty years ago. It's by a group called Massive Attack, who still make music, apparently. The singer on the track's a woman called Shara Nelson. I can't remember what the exact words are, but basically she's really missing a guy she loved but also remembering how difficult their relationship was. The idea's not that original, but she's the kind of singer who can make any words sound special
- she touches your heart. So, I'm definitely going to look for more of her stuff to listen to. Speaker 3
lasked my dad which songs he liked when he was young and he told me about something called 'Autobahn' by a German group called Kraftwerk, and it was about driving on the motorway. The first time I found the song online, it said it lasted twenty-two minutes - I was shocked. But then I realised


there was another four-minute version, so I listened to that. It's electronic music and it's hard to believe it first came out over forty years ago - it could've been written today. It's quite repetitive but I didn't find it boring at all. And the words being in German didn't bother me as I got a translation online.
Speaker 4
I came across a song on the internet called 'Space Oddity' by David Bowie. I'd heard of him but I wasn't sure what his music able to show off to my friends. It's also made me feel stronger was like. It's about an astronaut - how he feels as he travels and more flexible, which I like. through space. I think it's a weird subject for a song, but actually it works well here. I imagine David Bowie's singing might get irritating if you listened to a lot of it, but the music and the words create a convincing picture of what it must be like to be in a spaceship, and as I listen I feel I really want to know more about what happens to the astronaut.
Speaker 4
I'm in a volleyball team. It's not actually a very popular sport around here. In fact, I'd never played it until a couple of years ago. But it's a really intensive form of exercise, at least if you take it seriously. You do lots of jumping, stretching and rushing round the court, and you have to concentrate - just the sort of thing that gets rid of any tension or troublesome I told my sister I had to write about an old song and asked thoughts you might have. That's why I tried it in the first place. A work colleague recommended it as a kind of therapy. The people in my team are very committed, which I like, and there's an excellent team spirit.
Speaker 5
her what she'd choose. She immediately said: 'Groove is in the Heart' by Deee-Lite. Apparently, there are several versions of it but the one she played went on for more than seven minutes. It was made in a studio by engineers who put together samples from several older songs to form a new track, which I think's an interesting process. It's got a great rhythm and it's one of those songs that make you feel happy just to listen to them. I've checked out other tracks by Deee-Lite but I don't think they're as good.

An active life (pages 32-33)
1-33 Exercise 6a
Besides being good for my health, I see mountain-biking as a great way to unwind. I got into it through my son Jamie really. In his early teens, he spent far too much time at home watching TV and playing computer games. I tried to get him doing various sports but he wasn't interested. One day I dragged him off to a place where you could try mountain- biking. I'd never done it before but I thought that if I had a go, Jamie might follow. He refused at first, but watching me must've changed his mind somehow. Well, he's mad keen on it now. He has loads of mountain-biking friends and even enters competitions.
134 Exercise 7
Speaker 1
I've been going to a wall-climbing centre for over a year now. I started in a beginners' class learning the basic techniques because I'd never done any climbing before. I guess I have an aptitude for it, though, because I now do quite advanced 136 things. It's amazing thinking back to what I was like initially. I'd been through a bad patch in my life and my self-esteem was low. In fact, that's why I started coming here. My brother suggested that doing something physically challenging like this might make me feel better about myself, and he was right. Climbing builds up your muscles too, which has been helpful in my case.
Speaker 2
In a way, it's surprising that I've kept going as long as I have done with karate. You see, I used to have a pretty free and easy lifestyle, and to do karate properly you have to be very disciplined about things. In fact, that's how I came to try karate in the first place - I thought it might be good for me to Speaker 2 do something that was unlike anything I'd done before. I'm glad I've managed to stick at it. Everyone in my karate group is really friendly and supportive, the kind of people you can rely on. And I can't imagine a better way to stay in shape.
Speaker 3
Every Saturday I go to a circus school for a two-hour session.
We mainly do acrobatics - you know, different types of jumps, somersaults, handstands, that kind of thing. We're also learning how to walk along a wire - not very high off the ground yet - and some juggling. Ever since I was really small I've wondered what it'd be like to do things like these so when I heard about this school I decided to have a go. I'm not especially talented but I've learnt a few tricks that I've been
Speaker 5
I run four times a week. I recently joined a running club and I go there twice a week - I feel motivated running with them. And twice a week I go jogging with my housemate Lisa. Last year she decided to start running to lose weight and begged me to be her running partner. I resisted for a while - I never liked running when I was younger. But I finally gave in so she wouldn't nag me any more. The first few weeks were tough but I love it now. My stamina's improved and I feel great. It helps you unwind and clear your head after a tricky day at work.

First-time festivalgoer (pages 34-35)
1-35 Exercises 4b and 5
Southside is a new two-day electronic dance music festival. Everything was quite basic this year, which I guess you'd expect from something new and not very well known. Most of the people who went looked like dedicated electronic dance music fans. They seemed pretty cool about most things, even the lack of anywhere much to shelter when it rained. What they weren't so cool about was when we had to wait for things to happen and that annoyed me too - like the sound system being fixed or getting in and out of the site. But when the music was playing and everyone was dancing I really enjoyed myself.
Exercise 6
Speaker 1
With all the media coverage the festival gets every year, I think first-timers have a good idea of what it's like the various stages for bands, the separate areas for dance, comedy and kids, the mud after it rains. I sensibly took my boots and waterproof clothes! And you realise there's so much going on you probably won't see half of it. What I didn't imagine was that a complete stranger would lend me and my friend Sally enough money for food and train tickets home after our backpacks disappeared - probably stolen. If it wasn't for that woman, who we've since paid back, getting home would've been a big hassle.
I like reading but the idea of going to a literary festival to listen to writers talk about books doesn't appeal much. High energy music to rave to is more my scene. But my friends had a spare ticket and invited me along. So, why not? Generally, was all a bit quiet for me. Having said that, it wasn't just about books - there was some music, some comedy one night and


drama on another, which wasn't what I'd expected. Some of the book talks were a bit dull - people actually fell asleep in one of them, which made me smile - but I also went to some
that were very interesting. Speaker 3
My sister's often tried to persuade me to go with her to the theatre and comedy festival and this year I finally gave in. It's a massive event, of course, with loads of shows in all sorts of venues. There were a couple of things I wanted to see and couldn't a new play about doctors, and a Canadian comedian. The tickets had sold out by the time we arrived, which was a pity. But we saw lots of things, some excellent, some not so good. Apparently, it's always like that. It was surprisingly hot when we were there too hot really - more suitable for the beach than sitting in theatres.
Speaker 4
I went to our local carnival for the first time last weekend. A parade goes from the town hall, through the town centre and ends up in the park, where various things are set up - play areas for kids, food stalls and a stage for bands. Lots of people dress up in different costumes so it's very colourful. It all went very smoothly, as far as I could see. Considering it's run by a handful of local residents, it was all very efficient. I must say, though, it wasn't quite as upbeat as you might expect. Maybe the heat and humidity had something to do with that.
Speaker 5
This summer I went with a group of friends to a big festival of traditional and folk music from all over the world. I'm very interested in different cultures and I liked a lot of the acts we saw the music, the dance, the clothes they wore. I know this kind of thing wouldn't be everyone's cup of tea, though. There was a full programme, and while things didn't always happen as advertised, we had fun. It was partly because we all know how to enjoy ourselves, but everyone there seemed to be in a really positive mood. You couldn't help but have a good time.

City life (pages 36-37)
1- 37 Exercise 3
You might've heard of Manchester's football teams, or bands that came from here. In terms of sport, music and art, Manchester's really vibrant, though the weather's often rather miserable. You might also know that it was once the most important industrial city in the world - lots of the nineteenth century warehouses and factories are still there, and they're interesting to visit. What you may not realise is how mixed the population is now. Apparently, over sixty different languages are spoken here. I've got neighbours of Italian, Ethiopian, Turkish, Chinese and Egyptian origins. Coming from a village where no one's been anywhere, I think this is absolutely brilliant.
438 Exercise 6
Speaker 1
first came to Liverpool to study, then stayed to work. It's famous for two things: music, especially the Beatles, and football, but there's more to it than that. It was an important port for three hundred years or so, until quite recently actually, and there are plenty of interesting old buildings worth seeing. What really makes it for me, though, are the Liverpudlians, as the locals are called. They've got a reputation for being chatty, witty and always up for a good time, and ts fully deserved. Many are of Irish descent, but there's been a more recent influx of people from other places, including China, so it's become quite mixed.
Speaker 2
Every year about eight million people come on day trips to
Brighton. They come for the sea air, the cool shops and cafes, the bars and clubs, the old pier and the Royal Pavilion, a fantastic eighteenth-century palace. I came for a day, loved it, and eventually came back to live. I'm originally from a very conservative small town, and the thing that really appeals to me here is you can do whatever you want and people won't give you funny looks - talk to anyone, wear crazy clothes, dye your hair green- as long as you respect other people. You'd imagine it might be chaotic, but everything works very well. Speaker 3
Compared with other cities I know, I think Bristol's very well run. The buses and trains are efficient; there are great cycle paths so cycling's popular; the schools, universities and hospitals are good and everything's clean and well maintained. The stand-out features for me, though, are the skateboard park, Brandon Hill Park, and the fact that you can get to amazing countryside really quickly - that's what I'm into basically. Having said that, although it's not a huge city, Bristol caters for all tastes. So, if you're into food, there are plenty of good international restaurants, if music's your thing, there are always interesting gigs, and there's a lively art scene. Speaker 4
When you mention the name Oxford, people tend to think of one of the top universities in the world with beautiful old college buildings, libraries and museums, and lots of clever academics and students. And part of Oxford really is like that. But the city also has a successful economy and that's my main reason for being here- I believe I can build a business and do well for myself. I'm originally from India, actually, and there's quite a big Indian community in Oxford, as well as people from other parts of the world. So, I think in some ways Oxford's quite different from what many people might
imagine. Speaker 5
I live within walking distance of Leeds city centre, which is handy for work, but also means I have great access to the bars, clubs, live music venues, theatres and cinemas that make Leeds an ideal place for me. I love the buzz. Leeds used to be an industrial city, especially for textiles, engineering and metal manufacturing, but the economy's changed in the last fifty or so years, and it's an important centre for commerce, education and other services now. I'm not sure if it's got anything to do with its past, but people here tend to be warm, helpful and down to earth, which is a plus, of course.

Living online (pages 38-39)
1- 39 Exercise 4
I use the internet for research, social media and games. I definitely overdo it - it means I don't do other things I should, like exercise, and when I go offline I can get very anxious. One claim often made about internet users like me is that we can't focus on one thing for any length of time - all that jumping around is so different from reading a long book, for example. I've wondered if this would happen to me but I don't think it has. And I recently heard about a couple of well-known novelists who're into technology and gaming - they've both written several long books, which makes me feel better.
440 Exercise 5
Speaker 1
I mainly use my smartphone for messaging and social media. I'm constantly in touch with my friends - or can be. I text my parents and brother a lot too. It means we always know what we're all doing, which is good. I realise it's a bit out of control in other ways, though. I often feel more irritable than I should and I find it hard to stick at any one thing - and I think that's

because I'm so used to being online and moving quickly from one thing to another. I really should cut down the time I spend online, but, to be honest, I can't see that happening. Speaker 2
I've heard it said that people my age spend too much time online - we're missing out on things and we have a narrow view of life. But I think the opposite's true. Through the internet, I find out about all sorts of things I'd never get from books. It's fantastic like that. And I even make friends in different countries, though I don't meet them face-to-face. I admit it probably wouldn't hurt me to go online a bit less, but I don't think I'd be any happier or more intelligent or better informed if I didn't use it so much. Perhaps the thing is I've never really known anything different.
Speaker 3 I used to do lots of different things in my free time
swimming, clothes-making, singing classes - but I've given most of them up. It's my fault but I find the internet so addictive. I've put on weight and I feel quite down a lot of the time. I use the internet for work, but I also waste a lot of time on stuff like showbiz gossip. So I've decided to do a digital detox - doing without my smartphone and tablet for a couple of weeks, and then I'll go back to using them in a limited way. It's not going to be easy, but I need to do it.
Speaker 4
I use the internet at work and I should steer clear of it when I'm not there. But I play games on my tablet when I'm commuting, and in the evening I usually spend a couple of hours online. Mostly I'm swapping texts and emails with friends and family, which is OK, but it'd actually make more sense to go and see them - they don't live far away. Good thing I still play basketball, but I expect I'd be fitter and more cheerful if I spent less time online. I wish I could be stricter with myself about it, but I can't. Perhaps I should just get rid of
my tablet. Speaker 5
My dad often complains that I spend too much time looking at my phone. He's probably right in a way, but I can't help it. I do talk to people, probably more than Dad does actually - it's just not always face-to-face. I've got plenty of proper friends, though, not just social media-type friends. I'm still at Speaker 5 university so I'm living at home with my parents, but I go out a lot - I just take my phone with me. I use an app to help me plan and record my gym work. I'd probably be just a s fit if I didn't, but I think it's a fun thing to do.

Learning to learn (pages 40-41)
1- 41Exercise 3
The subject I'm studying, anthropology, is fascinating but there are lots of complicated theories to get to grips with. We have loads of reading, and long essays to write, and our lecturers also recommend that we get involved in little research projects that they say are good for our CVs. And at my university it's almost obligatory to have a busy social life. There's masses of pressure and sometimes it overwhelms me - it's just too much. A while ago, one of my housemates, Jenny, realised something was wrong and encouraged me to open up about it. She's a good listener and it made a huge difference.
Speaker 1
Exercise 4
The subject I'm studying, anthropology, is fascinating but there are lots of complicated theories to get to grips with. We have loads of reading, and long essays to write, and our lecturers also recommend that we get involved in little research projects that they say are good for our CVs. And at
my university it's almost obligatory to have a busy social life. There's masses of pressure and sometimes it overwhelms me- it's just too much. A while ago, one of my housemates, Jenny, realised something was wrong and encouraged me to open up about it. She's a good listener and it made a huge
difference. Speaker 2
I'm ambitious and if I don't do well, I can get upset, which I realise doesn't do me any good. I study law and we have masses of legal texts to read. Some people think they have to memorise them by reading them several times. I do something I was taught at school: I read a manageable chunk, then cover it and try to recall as much as possible by making notes or something like that. I find out what I don't understand and need to revisit. I get good results that way, and because I've got plenty of stamina I can keep going for a long time without breaks. Speaker 3
In my first year at university I got all my coursework done eventually, but it took double the time it should have. I'd put things off, then do a bit of work but then I'd allow other things to distract me. And this stressed me out because I wasn't making any headway. It also meant I had less time for singing in the choir I belong to, swimming - I'm in the university team - and just meeting up with friends. People made various suggestions. Try tackling the most challenging things first when you're still fresh was what worked best. Once I've dealt with the things I dread, the rest seems relatively
Speaker 4
I see my brain as a muscle which needs rest and relaxation between periods of exercise. So I'll work intensively for an hour, then go away and do something else for a while, then come back and focus again. This approach might not be for everyone, but spacing things out suits me. I read about it in a leaflet which also had tips about the best things to eat and drink and how to survive in a shared house with other students - most of us have never lived away from home before and remembering to do practical things like tidying up and putting the rubbish out can be surprisingly tricky.
I'm doing a Masters degree in marketing. I have a paid job to finance my studies, two small children to look after and I help care for my mother, who's disabled. I hardly have time to eat, which I know isn't good. I became very concerned that I was spreading myself too thinly and I thought seriously about what I could cut down on. I discussed things with my tutor and she said the key was that when I was studying something I needed to devote all my attention to that and block out everything else. Somehow the idea made complete sense and things have seemed a lot better since then.


Part 4
Smooth landing (Pages 42-43)

Exercise 3a
a) You represented your country at the world championships last year, and came fifth in one event and seventh in another. b) By fifteen you were winning international competitions.
What was that like?
What made you so good? c) Has snowboarding changed much in the years you've been
doing it?
d) Is it true that you started snowboarding very young? e) What do you think the future holds for you?


f) So, you did lots of snowboarding when you were at school? g) Have you used the Katal Landing Pad?
Exercise 4
Int: Today we're talking to Sam Connors, one of the country's top snowboarders. Welcome Sam. Is it true that you started snowboarding very young?
SC: Yes, I grew up in an area where winter sports are big and we lived close to a resort, so I spent lots of my free time there. Most of my mates from school were snowboarders too. We actually moved there when I was ten because of my dad's job. It was a coincidence actually, because we'd been there a couple of times for holidays, and my mum and dad got me doing it - they were into snowboarding themselves. Int: So, you did lots of snowboarding when you were at school?
SC: Yes. As I got better, I started going in for snowboarding competitions. They took up lots of time, and I didn't always get round to doing my homework and I'd be tired in class after a competition. I even missed classes sometimes and struggled a bit in some subjects, which worried my parents. The teachers realised it made sense to be flexible with me, though. They knew what was involved if you did competitive snowboarding. Some were keen snowboarders themselves! Int: By fifteen you were winning international competitions. What made you so good?
SC: Well, you need the right techniques, for speed and tricks, for example. And you develop these through hours and hours of practice. You have to be brave when you're trying new things because you crash and get hurt. I'm also very competitive - I'm hard on myself if I make mistakes and that's probably where I'm different from many of the snowboarders I grew up with. They're just as talented, but they're more laidback.
Int: You represented your country at the world championships last year, and came fifth in one event and seventh in another. What was that like?
Int: Are there similar problems with the Javan rhino? BL: Well, you might've seen news reports about their situation SC: Great. I couldn't ask for anything better than racing in the recently; it's tragic and people get very emotional about it.
same events as some of the best snowboarders ever-people really look up to. Nothing could beat that. It was also nice chilling out with the guys from my squad. I became better Realistically, going forward, a zoo's the only place where these known too. I'd have fans approaching and journalists wanting animals are likely to breed. to interview me. Getting known like that means you're more
int: Has snowboarding changed much in the years you've
been doing it?
and the big sports equipment and sportswear companies are heavily involved now. That's partly because there are more people snowboarding than before. Also, standards have gone up, so we ride the boards faster, jump further, do more complicated tricks in the air, and this is what's significant for me. I constantly feel I have to improve in order to keep up
with what others are doing.
nt: Have you used the Katal Landing Pad? SC: Yes, though my home resort hasn't acquired one yet, and certainly should. For those who don't know, it's a huge, -filled cushion, shaped like a mountain slope. The idea is that when you're working out new moves - spins, flips and things like that - you fall a lot, and this Landing Pad is much softer than real snow and when you land on it, you don't get injured. Some old school snowboarders think technology they'll develop health problems.
ages ago - it would've saved me a few broken bones! Int: Interesting. What do you think the future holds for you? SC: Well, snowboarders tend to stop competing when they're
in their thirties - your body gets damaged so much that it's not good for you to carry on at that level. Snowboarders often end up making and selling snowboarding gear, and I've been tempted by the idea of commentating on the sport for TV. My intention, though, is to set up a snowboarding school with all
levels and different age groups. Int: Well Sam, I hope it goes well for you ...

Zoos to the rescue! (pages 44-45)
Exercise 4a
Int: Beth Lawley is responsible for breeding endangered species at Clacknair Zoo. Welcome Beth. Many children see
zoo-keeping as a dream job. Was it yours? BL: Well, I was always keen on animals, and I imagined I'd end up working with them somehow. I studied zoology and I was told that some practical work with animals would help my prospects of getting into research, so I did basic zoo keeping as a volunteer in the holidays, thinking it might lead to something else. I loved it though, and when I finished my degree, I went to work for the same zoo.
Exercise 5
Int: Tell us about your work with snow leopards. BL: Sure. My zoo's involved in efforts to preserve the snow leopard - a beautiful wild cat that's endangered. In order to breed healthy animals, we try to match zoo-born snow leopards with animals that were not born in captivity, which is quite challenging. We try to reproduce the snow leopard's natural environment - we can't build mountains but we make structures they can climb and give them special objects they can attack. This is complicated, but what's really frustrating is that when we put snow leopards together, they often dislike each other and don't breed.
There are only thirty to fifty left in the wild, and scientists say this means it's unlikely that the Javan rhino will ever recover.
Int: How many breeding programmes for endangered animals would a zoo like yours have?
ikely to attract good sponsorship.
BL: In the last ten years, we've had over twenty. With some animals, we can breed enough to be able to re-establish SC: Definitely. There's more money from TV and advertising, them in nature. The Socorro dove is a bird that completely disappeared from the island off Mexico where it lived. There were a few left in European zoos that we brought here and successfully bred. Now, we're working on releasing their young into their natural environment.
Int: Are zoos suitable for large animals like elephants? BL: Well, zoo enclosures can look small for large animals and I often hear members of the public say we're treating the animals badly. In the wild, though, animals mainly move to find food. In the dry season, elephants may travel long distances to find food and water, but in the wet season, when everything's available, they hardly move. The key is to design their enclosures so they can get enough varied exercise, but they needn't be huge. And you have to know about appropriate diets for them. If you get these things wrong,
kes this takes away some of the challenge and excitement, Int: Which part of your job do you like best? but my first reaction was that it's great, and I haven't changed BL: Nowadays I do a lot to inform visitors and people my mind. In fact, I wondered why no one had come up with it outside the zoo about wildlife and what we do and I find that interesting. When I started, being a zoo keeper meant feeding animals and cleaning up after them. But now we try to develop relationships with them. We teach animals

to open their mouths so we can check their teeth, or sit still realistic in a mission to Mars was our main goal. We looked at while we give them medicine. I even convinced a gorilla to combinations of cookable dehydrated ingredients and pre cooked meals.
let me examine her baby. This is probably more rewarding than anything else - partly because it makes the animals' lives better.
Int: What advice would you give to someone considering zoo
keeping as a career?
BL: Well, you need to get pleasure from the work itself. It's tough and often exhausting, it's not very well paid, and although you can get various qualifications and promotions,
it doesn't offer the opportunities you might find elsewhere. But I find most people who become zoo-keepers are aware of this. It's reacting to the loss of an animal they've been looking after, or not being able to develop a positive relationship with one - things like that which trouble them most. Int: Beth, many thanks for talking to us today.

Mission to Mars (pages 46-47)
Exercise 1b
How much do you know about the planet Mars? Where in the solar system in relation to the earth and the sun is it, for example? Well, nearest to the sun is the planet Mercury, then comes Venus, and the Earth is third. Mars comes next, so it's fourth closest to the sun. After Mars come Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The smallest of the planets is Mercury, and Mars is the next smallest, while the Earth is the fourth largest. The Earth has one moon, of course, but Mars has two - Phobos and Deimos. One of the things that would make it hard for humans to live on Mars is the temperature. The average is -75°C, but it can be much colder. Also, there isn't enough oxygen on the planet for humans to breathe. As you may be aware, Mars is known in English as the Red Planet, and it has a similar name in other languages, because it can appear to have a particular colouring due to certain minerals on the surface of the planet. Believe or not, here have already been sixteen successful missions to Mars, and there have been many more unsuccessful ones. As yet, none of them have been manned. Like the earth, Mars has gravity, but it has about 37% of the amount that the earth has. Because of this, in theory, if you were on Mars, you would be able to jump three times higher than on the Earth. Mars also has the second highest mountain in the solar system, at 21 kilometres high. It also has two polar icecaps, but no surface water. Finally, humans have known about Mars for a long time. The first known recording of it was by Ancient Egyptians well over
Exercise 5
Int: Rashida. How did you come to take part in the simulation in Hawaii?
RK: We had to apply. Out of several hundred applicants, six
of us were chosen. I happen to be the first woman of Asian origin to have been recruited for one of these projects - my parents were from Pakistan. But I'm also a scientist. In the past I've carried out health studies for space programmes, and I assume this explains my selection. My own long-term goal is to become an astronaut, and I thought this project would be
useful experience for that. Int: What were the main aims of the project you were
involved in?
RK: There've actually been several projects over the years, and the scientists who run them study various things, like the composition of the crews - how different personality types get on in unusual conditions, or the physical space we live in - the dome's a clever piece of engineering but it's small. For my group, figuring out what sort of diet would be desirable and realistic in a mission to Mars was our main goal. We looked at combinations of cookable dehydrated ingredients and pre cooked meals.
Int: Did you have any concerns as you went into the project? RK: Well, we knew the only communication we'd have with the outside world would be via email with the project directors, and our families and friends knew this too. We knew that although the dome's small, it's sufficiently well equipped and well laid out for us to stay fit. We also knew we'd have very little water. Spaceships can't carry much water. Each crew member was allowed eight minutes in the shower per week and we couldn't wash clothes. This was worrying initially but you come to understand there are ways to adapt. Int: Were the results of the project useful?
RK: You'd need to ask the directors that. I know they were impressed at some of the ideas the group came up with for dealing with various practical problems - some unpredictable but imaginative solutions actually. They were also interested that we all lost weight. This is common, though undesirable, on space missions because astronauts don't feel like eating much. In our case, it was probably because we worked out quite seriously. They also monitor people's moods - being shut away for several months like that can make people depressed, though we all avoided that.
Int: Sending people to Mars is a massive challenge. Is it really
worth it?
RK: Well, humans can do lots of things in space exploration that technology can't. There's also plenty of evidence that technology developed for space exploration has been very useful in other fields like computing, medicine and agriculture. To me that's the strongest justification for any space programme. Another point, which several prominent scientists have made, is that some disaster like an asteroid hitting the Earth could make our world unliveable. We'd need somewhere else to go to and Mars seems the best choice at present. I must admit, though, that I don't feel confident about this idea - it's just unthinkable really.
Int: Do you have any sympathy for people who question the whole Mars programme?
2,000 years ago.
Exercise 4
Int: Rashida. How did you come to take part in the simulation RK: We had to apply. Out of several hundred applicants, six
in Hawaii?
of us were chosen. I happen to be the first woman of Asian origin to have been recruited for one of these projects - my parents were from Pakistan. But I'm also a scientist. In the past I've carried out health studies for space programmes, and I assume this explains my selection. My own long-term goal is to become an astronaut, and I thought this project would be
useful experience for that.
Int: What were the main aims of the project you were
involved in?
and the scientists who run them study various things, like the composition of the crews - how different personality types get on in unusual conditions, or the physical space we live in the dome's a clever piece of engineering but it's small. For my group, figuring out what sort of diet would be desirable and
RK: There've actually been several projects over the years, RK: Well, each manned mission to Mars would cost hundreds of billions of dollars, and you can understand why people think it'd make more sense to spend that money on fighting hunger or serious diseases. I have less patience for people who say that nothing valuable has come out of the Mars projects, though - that's very short-sighted. The work I've

been involved in is one part of a larger effort to ensure we can overcome the hostile conditions on Mars and install a human community there. And it may happen sooner than we expect.
which you're unlikely to know unless you're in this sector. Int: Where do your ideas for books come from?

Popular pop-ups (pages 48-49)
2-8 Exercise 3
Linda, do you remember the first pop-up book you ever saw?
Did you make pop-up books as a child? As you grew up, did you have anyone giving you guidance - like an artist or author?
was that experience like?
Your first pop-up book came out when you were thirty. What You've now published over fifty pop-up books. What process
do you go through in making one? Where do your ideas for books come from?
Where do see yourself going in the future?
Exercise 5
Int: Linda, do you remember the first pop-up book you ever
saw? LA: Yes. It was stunning. I was entranced by it. My older brother needed a serious operation and I was worried and frightened for him. Trying to calm me a bit, my mum bought me this book - big, with a hard cover, and when I opened it, a little house made of card stood up from the open page. Other pages had scenes popping up too. I was immediately fascinated and completely forgot about my brother! Int: Did you try to make pop-up books as a child? LA: Yes, lots. The materials available were much more limited in those days. Basically, we had coloured crayons and plain paper. You need card to make pop-ups, and my dad got it for me. He knew a place where they used card files a lot. From time to time they'd throw old files away, and my dad collected them for me. He was great like that. I tried lots of things. Many didn't work, but I got used to figuring out how to fix what'd gone wrong, or how to avoid it happening again. That was
very important in my development. Int: As you grew up, did you have anyone giving you
guidance-like an artist or author? LA: No. It was very much me finding out things for myself. Actually, there seems to be an idea that there's a sort of community of people who write books for kids and that we meet up, and encourage and look after one another. In reality, creating books - whether writing, drawing or designing pop ups-is a solitary activity. And you're trying to come up with
something unique. Int: Your first
pop-up book came out when you were thirty. What was that experience like? LA: Well, my technical knowledge of what you can do with
paper and card has improved enormously and I can design
much more sophisticated things, but I couldn't have done any better at the time. I pushed myself to my limits. The company that agreed to publish it were taking a risk as there wasn't much of a market for pop-ups then. In fact, they didn't think it would have much impact. Fortunately, it turned out they were mistaken, and it meant I could do more. nt: You've now published over fifty pop-up books. What
process do you go through in making one?
LA: I write the story first, then picture in my mind what each page will look like, then start designing the pop-ups. I cut a type of stiff paper and fold and glue pieces together, constructing scenes. Anyone listening who's seen a pop up book will know they're complex structures, and they'll understand why it takes several attempts before each one works. I'm producing increasingly sophisticated books and few at a time, so I've had to recruit designers to help me,
LA: Well, I get people saying things to me like: 'Why don't you do a book about football?' To be honest, I'm not into football, and if I can't work on something that excites me, my heart won't be in it. Publishing companies also do surveys to find out what children and parents say they want from books, but sticking to things that satisfy my own curiosity and enthusiasm works best for me.
Int: Where do see yourself going in the future?
LA: Well, I'll carry on producing books that people buy for children as presents. Interestingly enough, although they look quite delicate and easy to break, libraries often stock them. I've been told that's because they're popular, more than normal books, so it's OK to replace them if they get damaged after being borrowed fifty times. Linked to this is a recent move into educational pop-up books- episodes in history or aspects of science, for example. They're purpose-made for the classroom. This appeals to me very much and I hope it'll expand.

Getting a laugh (pages 50-51)
2-10 Exercise 4
Int: In the popular comedy show, Mixers, Dylan Peters plays the part of Jezza, a teenage skateboarder with an unusual sense of humour. Dylan. How did you get the part? DP: I went to the auditions. I'd only had one small part on TV before, and when I got there, I saw about one hundred other guys my age. And I had a terrible feeling that lots of them had done far more acting than me, so I wouldn't stand a chance. But the programme makers were looking for people my age, with similar lifestyles to mine, and I thought that going through all the auditions might teach me how to present myself for other jobs. I was shocked, though, when they offered me the part - and it was a leading role.
2-11 Exercise 6
Int: So, what were the first episodes the series like to make? DP: Luckily the directors and the cast were all supercool. Actually, when they were doing the casting, one thing they considered was how well everyone would function in a team, and we all hit it off instantly. I had lots to learn, but I basically did what the directors said. After a while, it became obvious that my part was being adapted to fit me personally. They thought certain things in my everyday speech could add something to the show. At the same time, looking back, I realise that my ability to deliver lines was improving. Int: How similar are you to your character, Jezza? DP: We both have the same sort of family background. We're both laidback but also outgoing, and we skateboard, though he's better than me. So, there's a stunt double to do any advanced moves - I'd look stupid trying them. One thing about Jezza is that he misunderstands things people say and, as a result, he gets into quite weird conversations, which are often hilarious. And I'm like that sometimes. I can't help it, nor can Jezza.
Int: You had to live away from home while you were making
the first series. Was that hard for you?
DP: It was only for a while, and school-age actors like me had lessons with tutors when we weren't on set, so we were kept busy. And I'm quite independent so I can cope without my parents for a time, though I did miss them. The filming itself was the main challenge for me. When you're watching the show, it might look like we're all having fun, but lots of work goes into it. You say the same lines over and over again before the director's satisfied, and that takes it out of you.

Int: Can you still go skateboarding for fun? DP: I'm supposed to keep away from risky stuff so I don't get injured - that's awkward when you're skateboarding because it's all about taking risks really. I was worried for a while that if people recognised me from the show, they'd want to see some of Jezza's tricks. But in the places where I go skateboarding, it's no big deal that I'm on TV. They might ask
me a few questions, but generally I get treated as just another
Int: As quite a new actor yourself, what advice would you offer other young people who'd like to get into acting? DP: When I've talked to some of the older actors on the show, they say it's best to do as many different auditions as you can. You may think dancing or singing are your strengths, but you might discover there are more opportunities in comedy and you're actually good at making an audience laugh. You'll get plenty of people telling you acting's an impossible career. But why not have a go when you're young? If it doesn't work out in the end, well, at least you'll have tried.

Going into business (pages 52-53)
2-12 Exercise 2
Int: You're still only twenty. Has being so young made things
difficult for you? MC: I was worried initially that people might think I didn't know what I was doing, and they wouldn't want to do business with me. But I can honestly say I've always been made to feel encouraged, and sometimes, if I'm talking to other young people, being able to identify with them actually helps. I haven't been able to arrange business loans from the banks, but my dad's done it on my behalf so that hasn't been
an issue.
2- 13 Exercise 3
Int: What made you decide to set up a business? MC: Well, I'd finished school and I was thinking of going to university but not for a while. I had nothing specific planned and I was feeling a bit lost actually. My mum said 'Why don't you try starting a business? You've talked about it before. It'll give you plenty to do.' So I thought I'd have a go. That was two years ago. I haven't gone back to studying yet, but I've managed to make some money which will be useful when I eventually go to university. And I've learnt lots about doing
business, which should benefit me in future.
Int: Your company's product is a pepper sauce, which you've
named Delish Relish. Why pepper sauce? MC: It's based on a sauce my grandma used to make - I've adapted it slightly. My grandma migrated here from the
Caribbean over fifty years ago. She missed the sauce she'd had back home and developed her own version. Everyone loved it, and she passed the recipe on to her own children. It's popular with so many people that I didn't need market research to tell me it'd sell. My mum and aunt gave me a few lessons in making it. They weren't convinced it was a good
idea, though they've come round to it now. Int: What do you think makes your sauce different from others
on the market?
MC: There are various pepper sauces out there and a couple sell very well. They've got good packaging and advertising and they're mostly made of healthy organic products. With Delish Relish, the peppers, onions, tomatoes and other things are grown at home by my dad, and it's just me who cooks it up in the kitchen at home. You won't find any other sauce made quite like that. In the places where I sell it - markets, festivals and special food shops - that matters. Int: Are you planning to expand the business?
MC: Maybe one day. Various people have said I should take on staff and get specialists to do marketing and sales for me and I've thought about it. My older sister keeps an eye on the accounts because that's not my strength. Apart from the cooking, I like contact with customers - taking my sauce to shops and markets, and dealing with orders. I even like the legal stuff. At the moment, though, I'm the sole cook and I'm worried about not being able to meet demand. If I sold a lot more, I'd need to rethink the way I make it - and I'm not ready for that yet.
Setting up an authentic practice listening test
Each practice listening test takes about 40 minutes. To prepare the test, photocopy the practice test question sheets as well as the answer sheets on pages 55-56 for your students. Make sure your students are familiar with each part of the test. During the test, students hear each listening text twice. The listenings are not repeated on the CD so you will need to play each track again for your students. In Part 1, each of the eight recordings needs to be repeated individually. Parts 2-4 have just one recording that needs repeating. Time is given on the CD for the students to read each question before they listen. Emphasise to your students the importance of reading the instructions before they listen. At the end of the exam give students 5 minutes to copy their answers onto the
answer sheet.

Practice Test 1 (pages 56-61)
Part 1
(CD 2: Tracks 14-22)
You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the answer (A, B or C).
415 Question 1
You hear a woman making a telephone call to her friend. Hi John. Michelle here. I hope you're well. I'm phoning about
getting tickets for next year's World Athletics Championships. Well, first thing tomorrow morning's when they go on sale and they're all likely to get bought up in next to no time. So we'll need to be quick to get some. Each person can apply for four tickets. Cathy and Mike say they're up for it. You sounded positive the last time we spoke but you said you'd get back to me to confirm. I really need to know for sure now. I'm in a meeting this afternoon, but I'll check my phone for messages.
OK, bye.
Question 2
You hear two friends discussing a news story about a school
M: Did you see the news about the primary school teacher who was told to go home on the first day of her new job because of all the tattoos she had? F: How could I miss it?
M: Yes, it's been all over the newspapers, TV, and social media F: Apparently, the school head asked her to cover up all the tattoos, but she couldn't because she's got some on her hands and neck.
M: What I don't understand is why they took her on in the first place. They must've seen what she was like when she was
interviewed. I imagine some parents might've been alarmed when they first saw her.

F: Maybe.

2 17 Question 3
You hear a student talking to his friend about an article they have read.
M: Did you read that article about people climbing tall trees? F: Yes, it was interesting. How did you come across it? M: Well, I had to do an assignment for college. It was actually to write an essay about deforestation - you know, forests being destroyed - and my lecturer advised me to have a look at a couple of websites and this was on one of them.
F: I see.
M: Yes, I happened to notice the image of the treetops. It made me curious, though I realised it wasn't really what I
needed. F: The variety of wildlife they found in the treetops was
amazing. M: Absolutely, though it's not what my essay was about.
2-18 Question 4
You hear part of an interview with a footballer after a match. Int: Darren, you won but it was close at the end, wasn't it? F: Well, we were leading three-one for ages, and then they scored ten minutes from the end, but I still felt we were in control. I couldn't see them getting another goal. Int: On two occasions you clearly thought you deserved a
penalty. But the referee didn't see it that way. F: They were definite penalties, but it all happened really quickly and the referee's only human. But we won anyway.
Int: You personally had a good game. F: Thanks. I'm feeling fit, which makes a big difference. You can always improve, but I'm scoring goals, which is the main thing.
2- 19 Question 5
You hear two friends talking about a concert they went to. F: I can still hear Lucy Mason's voice in my head from the
concert last night.
M: I know what you mean. She put plenty of emotion into it. F: It was like every word meant something to her. M: Even though most of them weren't hers. It's quite a skill actually. Next time I'd like to hear her try something slightly
more adventurous. F: I thought she made those songs her own. They sounded
different from any previous versions I've heard. M: I'm not sure what the musicians she had with her would be capable of, though. They were a bit limited. F: They did what was required - support Lucy and not get in her way.
2- 20 Question 6
You hear the manager of a bookshop talking to shop staff. This won't take long. As you know, Ivor Mclean, the poet, will be here on Friday afternoon to talk about his first novel and sign copies of it. I've also mentioned previously that I'm going to be away for five days from Thursday - a pity as I'd like to have met the guy. Anyway, I'd be grateful for volunteers to organise things on the day. I don't need to go into any more detail here; I know whoever does it will be brilliant. If you want to discuss it among yourselves, that's fine, but it'd help if you let me know what you decide by the end of today.
2-21 Question 7
You hear a teenage girl talking to her father about a party she
went to. Dad: Were there lots of people at the party?
Girl: Yes, loads - there was hardly enough room to dance. But it was nice to see everyone outside school. Do you remember Liam? We used to hang around together ages ago. Well, I hadn't seen him at a party since he was thirteen, and he's
eighteen now! Dad: Were all the hockey team there?
Girl: Most of them, and one of the girls brought a really cool
album of photos from when we won that tournament. That was so brilliant.
Dad: It'll probably be the last time you'll ever see some of
those people. Girl: Yes. That's weird. I'll stay in touch with lots of them,
2-22 Question 8
You hear a woman being interviewed about a scheme to turn off street lights after midnight.
M: For the last three weeks, street lights across the city have been turned off after midnight. As a local resident, how do
you feel about this?
F: Well, it's only being done in certain areas, and you can see why the local government saw it as a way of saving money - better than cutting the schools budget, for example. The reaction against the scheme was partly because it came in so suddenly, and as far as I'm aware, local people weren't asked for their views on it - they should've been. But if it means less light pollution and energy consumption, then I can't see why we shouldn't carry on with it.

Part 2
(CD 2: Tracks 23-24)
You will hear a man called Lee Foster talking to a group of students about doing work experience as a journalist in Cape Town in South Africa. For questions 9-18, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
424 Hi. My name's Lee Foster. Earlier this year I spent six weeks doing work experience on a magazine in Cape Town, South Africa. Until I won the scholarship for this trip, I'd never imagined I'd go to South Africa, and what I knew about it was rather limited. But I realised I had a chance to get first-hand experience of an important country and, hopefully, gain some
practical skills for a career in journalism.
The first thing that struck me about Cape Town when I got there was its location - huge mountains on one side and the Atlantic Ocean on the other. The city centre looks affluent and modern and there are some smart suburbs, but there are also districts where safety can be an issue. Apart from public transport, which I had some trouble understanding initially, the normal city services seemed to function well.
My work experience was with a local weekly magazine. I think the staff were happy to have me there, but they didn't have time to look after me in any special way. Other work experience people my age probably get given fairly straightforward tasks, which don't stretch them much. I'm sure my natural curiosity was what got me some more
challenging jobs. To begin with, I helped on a section of the magazine where
they do individual profiles. One week it might be a musician; the next maybe a fireman. I got started with a profile of a baker. I asked him questions about his life and work and then wrote it up. It must've been OK because I was asked to do a few more. One week I met a rugby player for example. After a while, I persuaded them to let me do other articles. I reported on football, for instance, which was fun, and I wrote reviews of some great concerts. The one I was proudest of was about refugees - an issue that's very much in the news there. I learnt a lot for myself doing those articles, but I also got help from a particular news editor at the magazine who improved my texts, and I picked up some good ideas from a sports journalist. A photographer came with me to a couple of assignments, and this guy also passed on some really useful

advice, which I hadn't expected at all.
I stayed with a local host family while I was there. They treated me really well: I could do what I wanted, but they also invited
me to have dinner with them several times. They taught me a lot about South Africa -various types of local music, for example. And they introduced me to certain dishes I'd never had before. We also talked about the history of Africa as a whole. They were incredibly well-informed about that. During the week I often worked late into the evening-I suppose journalism's like that but I was determined to make the most of any free time I had, and my weekends were action-packed. Cape Town's an interesting place and you can have plenty of fun there.
One weekend I went mountain-climbing. And I went bungee jumping for the first time in my life. I also went diving, and of all the things I did, that's the one I'll never forget. At one point some sharks passed really close to us, believe it or not. I went surfing too with the two boys from the host family. They're pretty good at it and they helped me with the basics. As I think I've made clear, I had a busy six weeks and I often got quite tired. It wouldn't be the thing to do if you just wanted to be calm and quiet. And there were a few situations which scared me a little, I must admit. But I wasn't homesick at any point, and I'd love to go back one day. If you think you might like to do something similar, I'd be happy to talk to you in more detail about it.

Part 3
(CD 2: Tracks 25-26)
You will hear five short extracts in which people are talking about art exhibitions they went to. For questions 19-23, choose from the list (A-H) how each speaker felt at the exhibition he or she went to. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use.
426 Speaker One
In the last years of his life, the French artist Henri Matisse started cutting up coloured paper and making interesting shapes and images with it. The exhibition I saw was about these cut-outs, as they're called. Some are quite small and they're generally very simple you might think anyone could do them really. But they're beautiful, and they made me want to see his work and learn something about his life. There was a lot of publicity for this exhibition and I'd been worried there'd be too many people for the experience to be enjoyable. It was rather packed, but it was well organised, so it
wasn't really a problem. Speaker Two
I went to an exhibition called Trash. It featured artists who use all kinds of objects and everyday materials to make sculptures. One exhibit portrayed a very large man carrying a huge load on his back- every bit of it was made of some piece of rubbish. It's interesting and challenges your assumptions about what art means, which I guess is the point of the exhibition. I've got a friend who makes sculptures out of objects she finds. She isn't famous, but seeing this exhibition made me think I should buy some sculptures from her. They aren't expensive, but if she ever became famous, they'd be worth a lot. Speaker Three
I saw an exhibition about the representation of horses in art through time. I'd love to know how they came up with that idea. The earliest work was actually a copy of a cave painting of a horse, done about thirteen thousand years ago. It was beautiful. There were also ancient Greek ceramics with horses painted on them, a Leonardo da Vinci drawing, a bronze sculpture by Degas from the nineteenth century, and loads more styles from different periods in history, but all about horses. I now wish I'd bought the book that was produced
for the exhibition because it'd be good to know more about some of the things there.
Speaker Four
I went to an exhibition that was a celebration of conceptual art made over a twenty-five-year period. The main attraction, though, was Damien Hirst's shark. It's a real four-metre-long tiger shark, preserved in a chemical solution in a glass tank. It's quite large and eye-catching, though I couldn't explain why it's art or what the point of it is. Apparently, some art experts made fortunes from collecting various items shown in the exhibition before the artists became famous. I suspect their main goal was to make money because some of the things on display didn't seem particularly interesting to me. I'm glad I saw the shark, though.
Speaker Five
I was really keen to go to the exhibition about African masks. Apparently, it's been very popular and there were lots of people there on the day I went. There were some brilliant masks from Cameroon. They're huge and they represent elephants. The people who made them must've been highly skilled there wasn't any information about them, though. Unfortunately, quite a lot of the exhibits weren't very easy to see because the lighting in some places was quite dark. Apparently, bright lights can damage the colours of the masks, but you'd think they could show the works safely but in a way you can actually look at them properly.

Part 4
(CD 2: Tracks 27-28)
You will hear part of an interview with a woman called Alison Palmer, who is talking about her career as an ecologist. For questions 24-30, choose the best answer (A, B or C).
428 Int: Today we're talking to ecologist Alison Palmer. Welcome Alison. Were you interested in nature as a child? AP: Yes. I grew up in a small town surrounded by beautiful countryside, and my dad was a biology teacher and my mum a gardener. In my teens, I rebelled against them in various ways, like many people at that age do, including most of my friends, but we always shared an interest in wildlife - for a while, it was the only thing we talked about really. The town didn't have much, so my friends and I made our own entertainment, like swimming in the river and going to the mountains. Wonderful really. Int: What were school and college like?
AP: I moved to a big city to attend college, and as soon as the courses got going, I realised I was seriously behind most of my peers - my old school hadn't been very good. My lecturers soon spotted this too and told me I'd have to work very hard to catch up. All this made me quite uncomfortable, and I even considered dropping science and concentrating on art, which I felt more confident in. Fortunately, I stuck at it. Int: How did you get into ecology?
AP: Well, after two years, we could specialise. I initially picked psychology because I wanted to learn how to help people like my dad, who'd become ill long-term and needed regular care. After a while, though, I felt dissatisfied. I wanted to study the root causes of things. I discussed it with various people, including my mum and dad, and eventually came to the conclusion that human interaction with the environment is crucial for so many things, including health, and that was
what I should study. So I switched.
Int: Tell us about your research in Antarctica. AP: Well, the team I work with drilled a hole through about eight hundred metres of ice to an underground lake, and took photos and samples of the lake water. My role's been to analyse this water, and I discovered it contains living organisms, microscopic ones. Conditions were really hostile for us, as you can imagine. Teams from other countries had

tried to do something similar but none had succeeded. In work of this type, it's extremely expensive getting all the people and equipment to Antarctica. That's something I
hadn't really understood until I went there.
Int: Do you often talk about your research to non-specialists
like me?
AP: Yes, I visit schools to talk about Antarctica. I explain that we're learning how it functions, how it affects the rest of the planet and the impact of global warming. Analysing the tiny organisms we discovered in the underground lake tells us something about the place and how it might change. I think most people appreciate this and they're curious too. I get asked lots of questions, many of which I can't answer because we're still very ignorant about Antarctica. Many people don't get this; they assume I should be able to explain everything. Int: Going to Antarctica sounds great. Are there any negative sides to your job?
AP: I've been to Antarctica five times in two years and several other countries too. All that flying's exciting, but also time-consuming and tiring. My work also includes teaching,
reading the latest studies in ecology and other research. Scientists have to get their work written up for journals, books and magazines. If you don't, you lose funding, and this causes me more stress than anything else. Colleagues say the same thing, actually. Int: Do you have any advice for people who are interested in
ecology as a career? AP: If you're passionate about the environment and you like
science, then go for it. Given the issues we face, the demand for trained ecologists is bound to increase significantly. This sometimes gets overlooked. Find out what ecology covers oceans, urban environments, woodlands, insects and so on but it's useful to develop expertise in a particular field. Volunteering on environmental projects is one way of becoming familiar with what's involved but you also need to
gain a sound grasp of the basic subjects, especially biology, chemistry and maths.

Practice test 2 (pages 62-63)

Part 1
(CD 2: Tracks 29-37)
You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, choose the best answer (A, B or C).
2-30 Question 1
You hear a college lecturer talking to her class. I'd like to say a few words about your written work before we move on. The last two essays you've handed in have generally been pleasing in that you've clearly been paying attention to the individual feedback I've been giving you. In particular, you've been planning your essays more thoroughly and, as a consequence, the arguments you develop have a more obvious structure and they're easier to follow. The next thing to consider is the amount of background reading you do. To get really good marks you've got to show that you've read widely on the topic and not just rely on what I and your other
lecturers say.
2- 31 Question 2
You hear part of an interview with a singer. Int: Now Maddy. You've just released your third album, Fine Line. You must be excited. Maddy: Oh yeah. It's quite different from my first two albums.
Most of the songs on them were written by other people, which was cool - some of those songs are great. But all the music and lyrics on this one are my own creations. So it's very much my own work, which I hope people like. So far
everyone's been so nice about it, which is great, because I put a lot into it. I'm a perfectionist and I was absolutely determined to get everything right. I think it's paid off though.
2-32 Question 3
You hear a man making a telephone call to his friend. Hi Jack. It's Alex. Sorry about the mix up on Wednesday. I was sure we were supposed to be meeting up then. I ended up popping in on Kate so it was fine. I felt a bit silly though getting things mixed up like that. I guess it's because my mind's been on other things, like getting a car. You know you said you'd check one out for me if I was unsure about something? Well, I'm seeing one tomorrow which looks OK in the advert, but it'd be great to have a second opinion if you have time. Could you let me know one way or the other? Thanks.
2- 33 Question 4
You hear a student speaking to her friend about a talk she went to.
F: I went to a talk about hearing loss today. Apparently, one in five teenagers experiences hearing loss. And it never gets
better, only worse. M: Do you know why?
F: From what I understood, it's from listening to loud music. I'd assumed there'd be explanations of how hearing works and how organs and cells get damaged - that's what was advertised. But the lecturer focused more on statistics about people affected.
M: Was there any advice about how to prevent hearing loss. F: Yes, plenty. Apparently, you shouldn't listen to music on headphones for more than fifteen minutes without a break. Worth remembering. It's not just teenagers who're at risk. People our age are too.
2- 34 Question 5
You hear a man making a telephone call to a radio programme about museums.
Presenter: Our next caller is Raymond. What point would you
like to make Raymond? Caller: Your last two callers mentioned feeling very uncomfortable at big museums nowadays. They described being prevented from getting near the exhibits by people standing in front of them, taking photos, talking loudly and so on. Well, museums are undoubtedly attracting large numbers of visitors, but surely everyone has the right to see the cultural treasures they contain. And raising ticket prices in order to discourage visitors, as the callers suggested, isn't the answer. Museums have to work out how to ensure a positive experience but also be fully accessible, and it's not an easy balance to achieve.
2-35 Question 6
You hear two friends talking about a novel they have both read.
F: Did you like Brooklyn?
M: Well, the second half brought tears to my eyes. F: I told you it would. It's got something to do with the very
straightforward way it's written.
M: Perhaps, though I would've preferred less of that. I actually found the first part in Ireland very slow - lots of everyday
stuff with nothing much happening.
F: That's what those people's lives would've been like. The details build up a picture of how they lived, their feelings,
how they related to each other. M: But it's all so different from the way things are now. I'm
not sure I'd have much to say to them if I was somehow transported into their lives.

2- 36 Question 7
You hear a basketball coach talking to his team after a match. Firstly, well done. The team we played today were champions last season, and you looked much better against them this time than when we last played. You looked as though you believed in yourselves, which wasn't the case before. The main issue today was concentration. If you throw the ball to a team-mate, you must make sure you get it to him. We practise this again and again in training - not giving your opponents a chance of gaining possession. But the way you kept talking, telling your team mates where they needed to be and that you were available to take the ball if necessary - there was a definite improvement there.
2- 37 Question 8
You hear two friends talking about security cameras in public places.
M: Look at all the security cameras.
F: The CCTVs, you mean? They've been here for ages. M: Yeah. There just seem to be more and more of them.
F: I tend to forget they exist. It's partly because I've heard they don't work very well. Apparently, the images often aren't clear enough for the police to use.
M: Well, I think they do deter people from committing certain offences, like theft. But lots are just there to make money. If you get caught driving in the wrong lane for a few seconds,
you'll get hit with a big fine. F: We assume they're there for security, but they're not. M: In many cases, no.

Part 2
(CD 2: Tracks 38-39)
You will hear a woman called Helen Campbell talking about her experience of doing conservation work in the Galapagos Islands. For questions 9-18, complete the sentences with a word or short
2- 39 If you look at a map of South America, you'll see the Galapagos Islands about a thousand kilometres west of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean; they belong to Ecuador, actually. They're famous as the place where Charles Darwin developed his ideas about evolution, and I was reading a magazine article about Darwin when it occurred to me that it'd be great to visit the islands. I found a website which advertised holidays combined with volunteer conservation work there, and I ended up going for two months when I had a gap between jobs.
It took me three flights to get to the island of San Cristobal where I was based. As I was tired after the journey, the conservation organisation I was working with started me off on the relatively easy job of recording the number of seabirds on one of the beaches. It's important to regularly check the populations of different species. I went on to collect data on sea lions and other animals. My favourites actually were the iguanas - they're amazing looking.
The Galapagos Islands are home to many incredible species of animals and plants. But as tourism and the local population have grown, environmental problems have developed, and there are big conservation efforts underway. Volunteers clear the beaches of rubbish washed up from the sea. Then, inland, it's important to remove things that pollute ponds, where animals get fresh water, and I worked on this for a while. It's dirty, unpleasant work actually, but it needs doing. One major problem on the islands is that some native species are suffering because of what's known as introduced species. These are things like rats, cats and also plants brought into the Galapagos. I spent three days cutting down blackberry
plants and digging up their roots - they invade the territory of native plants very aggressively. The idea is to restore large parts of the Galapagos to previous conditions. One interesting task I was given was to assist
a plant scientist who was gathering seeds. These were of
various native species and would be used to replant the areas
where unwanted vegetation, like the blackberry, had been
cleared away.
The work was rewarding, but I also had time for some fun. I explored the islands, hung out with local people and other volunteers and went to the beautiful beaches. When you swim in the sea there, you're likely to have other creatures swimming with you. I'll never forget one magical occasion when I was surrounded by lovely penguins splashing around in the waves.
I mainly stayed on San Cristobal, but I also visited Isabela Island one weekend. I had a shock when I first got there actually. I'd booked a room at the Wooden House Hotel, but it seemed there'd been a mistake because nothing was reserved for me and the place was full. Luckily, however, just down the road was the Volcano Hotel, which turned out to be fine. Isabela Island is actually bigger than San Cristobal but it's less developed. In fact, it didn't even have any banks when I was there, which I hadn't expected. Fortunately, I didn't need one urgently. I walked up a magnificent mountain on Isabela and watched some whales swimming just off the coast - a good place to escape the modern world.
I'd say the Galapagos are as nice as anywhere I've ever been. The people are friendly and the nature's stunning. The cost of getting there's an issue, though, and local prices are high. If you don't enjoy fierce heat, it wouldn't suit you either. And if mosquitoes concern you, it's not great - they were the worst thing about the islands for me. So, if you go there, be prepared.
One thing I'd looked forward to was eating lots of seafood, and I wasn't disappointed. There are also great vegetables and fruit, a few exotic ones besides the more common tropical fruits like mangoes and papaya. What I hadn't expected was the quality of the coffee. It's locally grown, and more delicious than I've ever had anywhere else.

Part 3
(CD 2: Tracks 40-41)
You will hear five short extracts in which people are talking about
their experience of taking part in drama activities. For questions 19-23, choose from the list (A-H) what was best for each speaker about their experience. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use.
2- 41 Speaker One
I joined the student theatre club at university when they were putting on a play by the Spanish writer, Lorca. He was one of the writers we studied in my Spanish degree. I found his writing quite difficult, and thought that helping to put on the play might make it easier for me. I'm not sure it did, but I enjoyed myself, and stayed with the club for two years. I mainly did things like operating the lights. Working alongside the different people there taught me a lot - that's what I got out of it most actually. It was different to the academic work which was mainly an individual thing.
Speaker Two
I used to go to a Youth Theatre group at weekends; I did it for about five years from when I was twelve. Some of the people from that group are still my best friends. We had some excellent teachers who taught us things like how to use our voices and getting into a character. More than anything, though, it allowed me to develop my imagination and my ability to come up with new ideas, which is important to me as a film-maker. My acting was never good enough to do it

professionally, but what I learnt there definitely helps me today in what I do behind the camera.
Speaker Three
My secondary school put on a big production at the end of each school year. It was voluntary, but my friends and I always got involved. One year we did a Shakespeare play - Macbeth - another time a musical - West Side Story. I always had small parts because I wasn't one of the best actors or singers, but examine underwater sites? I didn't mind. The great thing was it was so different from normal school work. When we were rehearsing, sorting out costumes or whatever, we forgot about our problems with maths tests or history essays, and we felt better afterwards.
The shows attracted big audiences who were always very
appreciative, which was nice. Speaker Four
I'm in an amateur theatre group which puts on plays for the local community. It's a nice contrast with my work as an engineer. I got into it through a friend actually. To be honest, I'd never done any drama before so I didn't have many expectations. The first production I was in was something by Chekov, the Russian playwright. I didn't know anything about his plays so it was interesting for me. I was pleasantly surprised to find that I could actually act quite well, and for me that's been the wonderful thing about joining the group - the realisation that I'm good at something I'd had no idea
Speaker Five
Three years ago, a colleague persuaded me to help out with the company's end-of-year show. It's a mix of sketches, singing and comedy, a sort of cabaret all put together by people from different departments. I'm not a natural performer - I'm too shy - but I'm fine at backstage work, like operating the sound system. In fact, I've become a bit of an expert with the sound equipment so they put me in charge of it. The main benefit as I see it, though, is that people from different sections of the company get to know each other and end up socialising at other times. The show's worth working on just for that.

Part 4
(CD 2: Tracks 42-43)
You will hear an interview with a man called Adam Ferrier, who is talking about his career as an underwater archaeologist. For questions 24-30, choose the best answer (A, B or C).
2- 43 Int: Our guest today is Adam Ferrier, who is an underwater archaeologist. Welcome Adam! Could you give us an idea of what your work involves?
AF: Sure. Part of it means diving to investigate historical remains at the bottom of the sea, lakes and rivers. It might be a ship that sank, you know, a shipwreck, or an aeroplane which crashed, or perhaps buildings that were covered by the sea at some point. My colleagues and I also give presentations on the work we do in schools, universities and diving clubs. Our primary function, though, is to update our records on underwater archaeological sites in this region. Int: How did you get into underwater archaeology? AF: Well, just before I started my archaeology degree I did a diving course. My instructor talked about shipwrecks he'd explored, and he lent me a couple of fascinating books on the subject. I'd actually been curious about ancient history since I was quite young. We didn't cover it at school, but at home we had various documentaries on video, including one on shipwrecks that I watched many times. I think my attraction for it all goes back to that actually. Int: Can you remember the first underwater archaeology
project you worked on? AF: Yes. It was in the eastern Mediterranean. We had to survey the remains of a port which was important about 2,000 years
ago. Earthquakes and sea level changes left some buildings from that time underwater. The sea was clear and warm, so we got a lot done each day. We couldn't have asked for more really. We used sophisticated mapping equipment and made some valuable finds - no gold or treasure, but things that increased our knowledge of what the place had been like. Int: In your current job, what are your aims when you
AF: Well, last year, for example, we spent some time looking for a couple of sunken ships. Nineteenth-century documents suggested they'd gone down in a particular area, but they'd never been found. We located one, but not the other. But preservation is what we're mainly trying to achieve. Historical objects can survive in water a long time and if you move them, you risk damaging them. Generally, it's better to leave things alone, until scientists with better equipment and methods than we have can deal with them.
Int: Can divers take souvenirs of what they see? AF: Well, the idea of exploring a 300-year-old ship on the seabed, finding some old coins, say, and taking them home with you is really exciting. But imagine each visitor to some great botanical gardens took one of the plants away - it wouldn't be long before there was nothing left for the next generations to see. It's the same principle with underwater sites. They belong to everyone and it's illegal to take anything without authorisation. There've been plenty of news reports about this and I'd be surprised if any diver was unaware of the rules.
Int: Do you have any advice for people studying archaeology? AF: Volunteer on projects during your holidays, especially abroad. I wish I'd done that in South America, for example. It would've helped me to improve my Spanish and Portuguese, which would've been very useful later on. I'm afraid jobs in underwater archaeology are limited. In fact, my own university tutor recommended looking at other areas of employment. I did what she said and got a job with a trading company. After four years, I got fed up with it and left, but it
gave me some useful skills and experience. Int: Finally Adam, is there anything about your work that
might surprise listeners?
AF: Well, archaeology's about trying to recreate things from the past and you need to come up with new ideas and explanations to do this. I suspect you only really understand this through doing archaeological work. There are always lots of reports, applications for funds, reviews and things like that which require attention, probably similar to many jobs nowadays, so people would probably expect that. I imagine also that people wouldn't assume that archaeology was a very well-paid profession, and they'd be right!